The rest of God is distinctively His own rest which He offers to share his people and through them with all the sons of men who enter into this rest by faith. While there were precursory aspects of that final rest to come (mainly in the divine rest provided by the inheritance of the land of Canaan), because it was not accompanied by the inward response of faith to the whole promise of God, of which this rest was just a part, the land of Canaan still awaits Israel and the people of God.
Christ became our Sabbath rest in the New Testament. We no longer have a Sabbath day. We honor the Lord on the first day of the week because that was the example set by Old testament Israel and the early church, but there is no special significance to one day over another. Rather, everyday we strive to enter into the rest (from our works of righteousness and sin) with the hope of one day attaining on the basis of Christ’s righteousness. The believer can celebrate the Sabbath every day as a perpetual celebration of rest. Six days he has labored in his own selfishness, pride and sin, but God by His grace has given him rest. Now he can rest from his sin and find grace in the arms of Christ. The believer in Jesus is no longer trying to do something to impress God. He is resting in the finished work of Christ. As Hebrews 10:14 says, “For by one offering He has perfected forever those who are being sanctified.”
Lastly, Jesus did not come to destroy, but to “fill up” the law and the prophets. The Scribes and Pharisees had compartmentalized the commandments and missed their true meaning. For example, they overlooked anger as long as they refrain from murder and justified lying by creating a hierarchy of oaths. Jesus pulled back their facade, and rather than relaxing the law, internalized, intensified and filled it up! He equated anger with murder and lust with adultery. Jesus fulfilled the true meaning of the Sabbath; “Come to me all you who labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest” (Matt 11:28). Eternal, true rest from sin in the presence of God is what Jesus offers. Believers live in that perpetual Sabbath today with a longing for the eternal experience of the Sabbath celebration.